بسترها و مبانی نظری شکل‌گیری جوامع یادگیری حرفه‌ای: الگوهای جوامع یادگیری و مقایسه آن‌ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مطالعات برنامه درسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران

2 استاد دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران

3 دانشیار برنامه‌ریزی درسی، گروه آموزش ابتدایی دانشگاه فرهنگیان، تهران

4 دانشیار پژوهشگاه مطالعات آموزش و پرورش

چکیده

جوامع یادگیری حرفه‌ای مؤثرترین راهبرد ارتقای سطح آموزش و یادگیری در مدارس محسوب می‌شود. در این جوامع، فرهنگ مشارکت و همکاری ارتقا یافته، معلمان، هنرآموزان و مربیان نقش بیشتری در یادگیری حرفه‌ای خود و دانش‌آموزان ایفا می‌کنند. آن‌ها از طریق همکاری، شیوه‌های آموزشی را به‌صورت سازنده مورد نقد و بررسی قرار داده و از یکدیگر می‌آموزند؛ درنتیجه این همکاری هم دانش حرفه‌ای و مهارت‌های خود را افزایش می‌دهند، و هم دانش‌آموزان از آموزش بهتر برخوردار می‌شوند. همچنین ضمن آن می‌آموزند که چگونه شبکه‌ای از دانش و مهارت ایجاد و آن را مدیریت کنند. مقاله حاضر می‌کوشد تا با استفاده از روش توصیفی– تحلیلی، مبانی نظری و بسترهای شکل‌گیری جوامع یادگیری حرفه‌ای را مشخص کند و با معرفی و تبیین چهارچوب پنج الگوی متفاوت جوامع یادگیری شامل: الگوهای باما (PDSA)، آبشاری، تشخیصی، منطقی و فضای سوم، ضمن تشریح چگونگی تشکیل جوامع یادگیری مدرسه‌ای، طی سه مرحله توصیف، تحلیل و تفسیر، ملاک‌های ارزیابی بر اساس مؤلفه‌های اساسی جوامع یادگیری حرفه‌ای استخراج‌شده و الگوها بر اساس آن‌ها مورد قضاوت قرار گرفتند. نتایج مقایسه آن‌ها در چهار سطح تعیین‌شده نشان داد، هیچ‌یک از الگوهای مورد بررسی مطلوب نبوده‌اند زیرا، همه شاخص‌های تعیین‌شده را در سطح بالا نداشتند،‌ لذا برای معرفی الگوی پیشنهادی از میان الگوهای مورد مطالعه، ترجیجاً شایسته است تلفیقی از اجزاء، مؤلفه‌ها و ویژگی‌های کلیدی الگوهای مورد مطالعه باشد. الگویی تلفیقی، جامع (عناصر، مؤلفه‌ها و ویژگی‌های کلیدی الگوها) و بومی‌شده همراه با قابلیت اجرا و پیاده‌سازی عناصر و اجزاء آن در مدرسه به‌گونه‌ای که از سوی اعضا قابل‌درک و پذیرش باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Contexts and theoretical foundations for establishing Professional Learning Communities (PLCs): PLC models and their comparisons

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roqayye Motehayerpasand 1
  • Kurosh Fathi Vājārgāh 2
  • Ne'matollāh Musāpoor 3
  • Heidar Toorāni 4
1 PhD Candidate in Curriculum Studies at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 (PhD), Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 (PhD), Farhangiān University, Tehran, Iran
4 (PhD), Research Institute for Education
چکیده [English]

Professional Learning Community (PLC) is the most effective strategy to improve the level of education and learning at schools. In these communities, the culture of the partnership and collaboration is enhanced and the teachers, students and educators play a greater role in their professional learning and their students' learning.This collaboration assists them to make constructive criticisms on the teaching methods and learn from their colleagues which result in their knowledge and skills' improvement and students’ enjoying better education. Also, in the meantime they also learn how to establish and administer a network of knowledge and skills. Utilizing descriptive-analytical approaches, this study aims to identify the theoretical backgrounds and contexts for developing the PLC's. In addition, by introducing and explaining the framework of the five different PLCs, including the PDSA, Cascading, Diagnostic, logical model and the third space, while explaining how to form the school learning communities, during the three stages of description, analysis and interpretation, evaluation criteria were extracted based on the basic components of PLCs and the models were judged based on them. The results of their comparison at the four determined levels showed that none of the models under study were desired, because they did not have all the determined indicators at high level. So, preferably it is better to suggest a model from among the models under study based on a combination of the components and key features. Such a model could be an integrated, comprehensive (elements, components and key features of the models) and nativised one which has the ability to perform and implement its elements and components at school in a way that is understandable and acceptable to its members.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Professional learning communities ( PLCs)
  • Professional learning
  • Professional learning communities models
  • collective learning
  • teachers' Professional Development
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