شناسایی ویژگی‌های معلم اثربخش در آموزش مجازی دوران کرونا - رویکرد فراترکیب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شیراز

2 استادیار گروه مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شیراز

3 دانشجوی دوره دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شیراز

4 دکتری برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی،‌ دانشگاه شیراز

10.22034/jei.2021.279117.1863

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی ویژگی‌های معلم اثربخش در آموزش مجازی دوران کروناست. طرح این پژوهش سنتزپژوهیِ کیفی از نوع فراترکیب تبدیلی است و با استفاده از روش شش مرحله‌ای سَندِلوسکی و باروسو انجام شده است. طی مراحل، ضمن انتخاب گروه فراترکیب، سؤال پژوهش و معیارهای شمول مقالات مشخص شدند و در جست‌وجوی نظام‌مند منابع در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی لاتین، با توجه به معیار خروج، 45 مقالۀ اصیل انتخاب شدند. سپس ضمن استخراج مضامینِ پایه تعداد 54 مضمونِ پایه تثبیت شد که به 8 مضمون سازمان‌دهندۀ سطح اول و سپس به 3 دسته مضامین سازمان‌دهندۀ سطح دوم شامل حضور شناختی (توسعۀ مفاهیم خود در دانش‌آموز، درگیری شناختی دانش‌آموزان، پشتیبانی فعالیت‌های دانش‌آموز)، حضور اجتماعی (توانایی ایجاد فعالیت‌های گروهی، توانایی مدیریت فعالیت‌های گروهی حین تدریس) و حضور تدریس (مهارت در ساماندهی دانش تدریس خود، شناخت مفاهیم نظری تدریس در محیط‌های الکترونیکی، طراحی و اجرای تدریس الکترونیکی) تبدیل شدند. درنهایت، تمامی مضامین مذکور در قالب مضمون فراگیر ویژگی‌های معلم اثربخش در آموزشِ مجازی ارائه شدند. همچنین با استفاده از روش‌های اعتبارپذیری و انتقال‌پذیری، اعتباریابی یافته‌ها انجام شد. ماهیت تأثیر تسهیلگری معلم در آموزش‌های مجازی دوران کرونا و توجه متولیان امر آموزش به تغییرات امر تعلیم‌وتربیت و گرایش به‌سمت آموزش الکترونیکی‌ آنان را به بازنگری روال‌های آموزشی معطوف و ترغیب می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying an effective teacher characteristic during corona era virtual instruction - A meta synthesis approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bābak Shamshiri 1
  • Maryam Shafi’i Sarvestāni 2
  • Fāteme Mirghafāri 3
  • Ali Javānmard 4
1 (PhD), Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 (PhD), Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3 , PhD Candidate in Educational Management at Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
4 , PhD in Curriculum Planning, Graduated from Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of an effective teacher in virtual education in the Corona era. It was a qualitative synthesis research of the conversion meta- synthesis type and it has been conducted using Sandlowski and Barroso’s six-step method. During the steps, while selecting the meta-synthesis team, the research question and the inclusion criteria for including the papers were determined, and during the systematic search of resources in Latin databases, 45 original papers were selected according to the exclusion criteria. Then, while extracting the basic themes, 54 basic themes were established which were converted into 8 organizing themes of the first level and then 3 categories of organizing themes of the second level including cognitive presence (development of self-concepts in students, students' cognitive involvement, support of student activities), social presence (ability to create group activities, ability to manage group activities while teaching) and teaching presence (skill in organizing their teaching knowledge, understanding the theoretical concepts of teaching in e-environments, designing and implementing e-teaching). Finally, all the mentioned topics were presented in the form of the comprehensive theme of the effective teacher characteristics in virtual education. In the sixth step, findings were validated using validation and transferability techniques. The nature of the teacher’s facilitating role in virtual education during the corona era and the attention of those in charge of education to changes in education and its tendency towards e-learning encourages them to review the educational procedures.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Effective teacher
  • cognitive presence
  • Social Presence
  • Presence of teaching
  • meta synthesis approach
ابوالمعالی الحسینی، خدیجه. (1399). پیامدهای روان‌شناختی و آموزشی بیماری کرونا در دانش‌آموزان و راهکارهای مقابله با آن‌ها. فصلنامة روان‌شناسی تربیتی، 16(55)، 157-193.‎
اسکندری، حسین و وحدانی اسدی، محمدرضا. (1396). موانع هوشمندسازی و تأثیر آموزش‏های مجازی ضمن خدمت بر میزان استفاده از آن و کیفیت فرایند یاددهی یادگیری در بین معلمان دورة ابتدایی. فناوری آموزش و یادگیری، 3(12)، 71-93. 
اعتدادی، محمد.، سخایی، غلامحسن.، پوررجب، معصومه و کیانی، مهدی. (1399). اجرای طرح آموزش و یادگیری آنلاین در مدارس استان اصفهان در دوران شیوع بیماری کووید-19. مجلة پیشرفت های نوین در علوم رفتاری، 5(44)، 24-12.‎
جعفرآبادی آشتیانی، محمد و نعمانوف، منصور. (1399). آموزش الکترونیکی ریاضی مبتنی بر حل مسأله با طراحی نرم‌افزار جدید و بررسی تأثیر آن بر عملکرد ریاضی دانش‌آموزان دورة متوسطه دوم. فناوری آموزش، 15(2)، 207-222.
خداویسی، سارا و سراجی، فرهاد. (1398). توسعه‌حرفه‌ای معلمان با استفاده از فضای مجازی: مطالعه پدیدارشناسانه معلمان شهر همدان. فناوری آموزش، 14(1)، 109-121. 
دولتی، علی‌اکبر‌.، جمشیدی، لاله و امین‌بیدختی، علی‌اکبر. (1395). ویژگی‌های بایسته معلمان در بهبود فرآیند یاددهی-یادگیری مدارس هوشمند. نشریة علمی آموزش و ارزشیابی، 9(34)، 77-96.‎ 
زارعی، اقبال.، جواهری دانشمند، محمد و شیخی، علی‌اکبر‌. (1398). شناسایی عوامل موثر و موانع کاربرد یادگیری الکترونیک در جهت افزایش سلامت روان دانش‌آموزان مدارس ابتدایی شهرستان کرج (یک مطالعه کیفی). فناوری آموزش، 13(3)، 607-616. 
سلیمی، سمانه و فردین، محمدعلی. (1399). نقش ویروس کرونا در آموزش مجازی، با تأکید بر فرصت‌ها و چالش‌ها. فصلنامة علمی، پژوهش در یادگیری آموزشگاهی و مجازی، 8(2)، 49-60.‎
 چن، شیپن.، دیاو، یونگ فنگ و پین ژانگ، جیان. (1399). سواد رسانه‌ای؛ تجربة یک فرهنگ جدید مشارکتی توسط دانشجویان هنگ‌کنگی و کانادایی: تقویت پروژة آموزش حرفه‌ای مدرسان با استفاده از سوادهای رسانه‌ای جدید (ترجمة مریم حق‌شناس، محدثه عقبایی و نهدی حیدری). نخبگان ایرانی، 2(1)، 5-28.‎
ضرغامی، سعید. (1396). تحلیل و ارزیابی ماهیت ارتباط مجازی معلم و فراگیران در نسل نو یادگیری الکترونیکی: مطالعة موردی موک‌ها. پژوهش‌ نامة مبانی تعلیم‌وتربیت، 7(2)، 25-36. 
علی‌پور، نسترن.، نوروزی، داریوش و نوریان، محمد. (1400). طراحی الگوی مؤلفه‌های مؤثر بر کیفیت محیط‌های یادگیری الکترونیکی. فناوری آموزش، 15(3)، 503-518. 
نیازآذری، کیومرث.، بهنام‌فر، رضا و اندی، صدیقه. (1391). تأثیر به‌کارگیری فن آوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در یادگیری دانش‌آموزان دورة ابتدایی. فن آوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در علوم تربیتی، 2(3)، 31- 43. 
Adedoyin, O. B., & Soykan, E. (2020). Covid-19 pandemic and online learning: the challenges and opportunities. Interactive Learning Environments, 28(5), 1-13.
Ahadi, A., Bower, M., Singh, A., & Garrett, M. (2021). Online professional learning in response to COVID-19—towards robust evaluation. Future Internet, 13(3), 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13030056
Alawamleh, M., Al-Twait, L. M., & Al-Saht, G. R. (2020). The effect of online learning on communication between instructors and students during Covid-19 pandemic. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(3), 1-22.
Alubthane, F., & ALYoussef, I. (2021). Pre-Service Teachers' Views about Effective Use of the Whatsapp Application in Online Classrooms. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 20(1), 44-52.
Asrial, A., Syahrial, S., Maison, M., Kurniawan, D. A., & Piyana, S. O. (2020). Ethnoconstructivism E-Module to Improve Perception, Interest, And Motivation of Students in Class V Elementary School. JPI (Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia), 9(1), 30-41.
Baber, H. (2021). Social interaction and effectiveness of the online learning-A moderating role of maintaining social distance during the pandemic COVID-19. Asian Education and Development Studies, 5(3), 12-27.
Bailey, D. R., & Lee, A. R. (2020). Learning from experience in the midst of covid-19: benefits, challenges, and strategies in online teaching. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 21(2), 178-198.
Baker, W., & Watson, J. (2014). Mastering the online master’s: Developing and delivering an online MA in English language teaching through a dialogic-based framework. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 51(5), 483-496. 
Basaran, B. (2020). Investigating science and mathematics teacher candidate’s perceptions of TPACK-21 based on 21st century skills. Elementary Education Online, 19(4), 2212-2226.
Bloom, D. A., Reid, J. R., & Cassady, C. I. (2020). Education in the time of COVID-19. Pediatric Radiology, 50, 1055-1058.
Caena, F., & Redecker, C. (2019). Aligning teacher competence frameworks to 21st century challenges: The case for the European Digital Competence Framework for Educators (Digcompedu). European Journal of Education, 54(3), 356-369.
Canbolat, Y. (2020). Professional autonomy of high school teachers in Turkey: A retrospective and prospective policy analysis. Egitim ve Bilim, 45(202), 141-171.
Carrillo, C., & Flores, M. A. (2020). COVID-19 and teacher education: a literature review of online teaching and learning practices. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 466-487.
Carter Jr, R. A., Rice, M., Yang, S., & Jackson, H. A. (2020). Self-regulated learning in online learning environments: strategies for remote learning. Information and Learning Sciences, 12(4), 112-130.
Chametzky, B. (2021). Communication in online learning: Being meaningful and reducing isolation. In Research Anthology on Developing Effective Online Learning Courses (pp. 1184-1205). IGI Global.
Clark, T. M., Callam, C. S., Paul, N. M., Stoltzfus, M. W., & Turner, D. (2020). Examing in the time of COVID-19: A sudden transition to unproctored online exams. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(9), 3413-3417.
Collins, A. A., & Lindström, E. R. (2021). Making Sense of Reading Comprehension Assessments: Guidance for Evaluating Student Performance. Intervention in School and Clinic, 56(5), 263-301.
Curran, G. M. (2020). Implementation science made too simple: a teaching tool. Implementation Science Communications, 1(1), 1-3.
Darby, F. (2020). How to be a better online teacher. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 12(22), 12-23.
Davis, J. P., Eisenhardt, K. M., & Bingham, C. B. (2007). Developing theory through simulation methods. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 480-499.
Dhillon, S., & Murray, N. (2021). An Investigation of EAP Teachers’ Views and Experiences of E-Learning Technology. Education Sciences, 11(2), 54. https://www.mdpi.com/981868
Dooly, M., & Sadler, R. (2020). “If you don’t improve, what’s the point?” Investigating the impact of a “flipped” online exchange in teacher education. ReCALL, 32(1), 4-24. doi:10.1017/ S0958344019000107.
Duran, D., Flores, M., Ribas, T., & Ribosa, J. (2020). Student teachers’ perceptions and evidence of peer learning through co-teaching: improving attitudes and willingness towards co-teaching. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14(5), 1-16.
Ebil, S. H., Salleh, S. M., & Shahrill, M. (2020). The use of E-portfolio for self-reflection to promote learning: A case of TVET students. Education and Information Technologies, 25(6), 5797-5814.
Engelbrecht, J., Llinares, S., & Borba, M. C. (2020). Transformation of the mathematics classroom with the internet. Zdm, 9(1), 1-17.
Evans, A. L., Bulla, A. J., & Kieta, A. R. (2021). The precision teaching system: A synthesized definition, concept Analysis, and process. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 13(2), 1-18.
Fischer, C., Xu, D., Rodriguez, F., Denaro, K., & Warschauer, M. (2020). Effects of course modality in summer session: Enrollment patterns and student performance in face-to-face and online classes. The Internet and higher education, 45(3), 71-102.
George, M. L. (2020). Effective teaching and examination strategies for undergraduate learning during COVID-19 school restrictions. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 23-48.
Gezer, E. T. (2020). The influence of education-themed movies on pre-service teachers’perception of effective teacher attitudes and personal-professional attributes (doctoral dissertation, middle east technical university). https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Elif-Gezer/publication/
Giroux, C. M., & Moreau, K. A. (2020). Leveraging social media for medical education: Learning from patients in online spaces. Medical teacher, 42(9), 970-972.
Goldhaber, D., & Ronfeldt, M. (2020). Toward causal evidence on effective teacher preparation. In Carinci, J. E., Jackson, C., & Meyer, S. J. (Eds.), Linking teacher preparation program design and implementation to outcomes for teachers and students (pp. 211-236). IAP. 
Goode, J., Peterson, K., Malyn-Smith, J., & Chapman, G. (2020). Online Professional Development for High School Computer Science Teachers: Features That Support an Equity-Based Professional Learning Community. Computing in Science & Engineering, 22(5), 51-59.
Goodwin, A. L. (2020). Globalization, global mindsets and teacher education. Action in Teacher Education, 42(1), 6-18.
Guran, A. M., Cojocar, G. S., & Moldovan, A. (2020, June). Designing edutainment software for digital skills nurturing of preschoolers: a method proposal. In ICSE-SEIS '20: Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Society (pp. 63-70). Association for Computing Machinery.
Haaland, L. K. (2011). A Phenomenological Study of Teachers' Experiences of Students with Learning Disabilities in Mainstream Middle School Classrooms. Northcentral University.
Hamby, D. W. (2021). Sources of Information about Design and Technology for Developing Online Professional Development. E-learning, 36(5), 54-58.
Hanicza, Y., Putri, D. H., & Hamdani, D. (2021, January). Identification of debriefing 21 st century skills on aspects of critical thinking skills and communication skills in Bengkulu high school students in physics subjects. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1731, 012069. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1731/1/012069.
Hartnett, M. (2020). Relationships between online motivation, participation, and achievement: More complex than you might think. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 24(1), 75-88.
Healy, S., Block, M., & Kelly, L. (2020). The impact of online professional development on physical educators ‘knowledge and implementation of peer tutoring. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 67(4), 424-436.
Hoq, M. Z. (2020). E-Learning during the period of pandemic (COVID-19) in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: an empirical study. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(7), 457-464.
Jaber, L. Z., Dini, V., Hammer, D., & Danahy, E. (2018). Targeting disciplinary practices in an online learning environment. Science Education, 102(4), 668-692. 
Jalinus, N., Syahril, S., Nabawi, R. A., & Arbi, Y. (2020). How project-based learning and direct teaching models affect teamwork and welding skills among students. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 11(11), 85-111.
Kacetl, J., & Semradova, I. (2020). Reflection on blended learning and e-learning-case study. Procedia Computer Science, 17(6), 1322-1327.
Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G., & Yilmaz, R. (2020). Learning analytics as a metacognitive tool to influence learner transactional distance and motivation in online learning environments. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 57(4), 1-11.
Leddo, J., Boddu, B., Krishnamurthy, S., Yuan, K., & Chippala, S. (2017). The effectiveness of self-directed learning vs. teacher-led learning on gifted and talented vs. non-gifted and talented students. International Journal of Advanced Educational Research, 2(6), 18-21.
Lee, J., & Martin, L. (2017). Investigating students’ perceptions of motivating factors of online class discussions. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning: IRRODL, 18(5), 148-172.
Loughran, J. (2019). Pedagogical reasoning: the foundation of the professional knowledge of teaching. Teachers and Teaching, 25(5), 523-535.
Lugosi, E., & Uribe, G. (2020). Active learning strategies with positive effects on students’ achievements in undergraduate mathematics education. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 51(5), 1-22.
Maryshkina, T. V. (2020). Involving students in extracurricular activities in the specialty: organization, participation and outcomes. Мир педагогики и психологии, (5), 162-171.
McDaniel, R., & Telep, P. (2021). Game Design Tactics for Teaching Technical Communication in Online Courses. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 51(1), 70-92.
Moorhouse, B. L. (2020). Adaptations to a face-to-face initial teacher education course ‘forced’online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 609-611.
Mouratidou, K., Karamavrou, S., Karatza, S., & Schillinger, M. (2020). Aggressive and socially insecure behaviors in kindergarten and elementary school students: a comparative study concerning gender, age and geographical background of children in Northern Greece. Social Psychology of Education, 23(1), 259-277.
Mumford, S., & Dikilitaş, K. (2020). Pre-service language teachers reflection development through online interaction in a hybrid learning course. Computers & Education, 12(3), 103-144.
Navarro, O., Sanchez-Verdejo, F., Anguita, J., & Gonzalez, A. (2020). Motivation of university students towards the use of information and communication technologies and their relation to learning styles. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(15), 202-218.
Nguyen, T. A. M., Hoang, T. T., Le, T. T. A., Luu, T. D., Le, Q. H., Nguyen, T. T. H., & Nguyen, V. C. (2020). Developing the competence of organizing experiential activities for pre-service teachers–the case in Vietnam. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(5), 2788-2799.
Ouyang, F., Chang, Y. H., Scharber, C., Jiao, P., & Huang, T. (2020). Examining the instructor-student collaborative partnership in an online learning community course. Instructional Science, 48(2), 1-22.
Ozfidan, B., Duman, J., & Aydin, H. (2020). Parents’ perceptions in STEM-oriented public schools: correlations among ethnic, linguistic, and socio-cultural factors. Educational Studies,46(4), 1-21.
Paramita, P. P., Sharma, U., & Anderson, A. (2020). Effective teacher professional learning on classroom behaviour management: A review of literature. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 45(1), 61-81.
Pires, D., Beach, D., Halawi, F. L., & Campus, W. (2020). Mobile technology in higher education: An extended technology acceptance perspective. In Proceedings of the EDSIG Conference ISSN (Vol. 2473, p. 4901).
Potocnik, R. (2020). Heritage preservation education: teachers’ preconceptions and teachers implementation in visual arts classes. CEPS Journal, 10(2), 49-76.
Preisman, K. A. (2014). Teaching Presence in Online Education: From the Instructor's Point of View. Online Learning, 18(3), 1-16.
Qian, Y., Hambrusch, S., Yadav, A., & Gretter, S. (2018). Who needs what: Recommendations for designing effective online professional development for computer science teachers? Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 50(2), 164-181.
Raccanello, D., Brondino, M., Moè, A., Stupnisky, R., & Lichtenfeld, S. (2019). Enjoyment, boredom, anxiety in elementary schools in two domains: Relations with achievement. The Journal of Experimental Education, 87(3), 449-469.
Raghavan, S. V. (2021). How to be an effective teacher?. CSI Transactions on ICT, 9(1), 17-21. 
Rapanta, C., Botturi, L., Goodyear, P., Guàrdia, L., & Koole, M. (2020). Online university teaching during and after the Covid-19 crisis: Refocusing teacher presence and learning activity. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(3), 923-945.
Rodesiler, L. (2015). The nature of selected english teachers' online participation. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 59(1), 31-40. doi:10.1002/jaal.427.
Sağlam, A. L. G., & Dikilitaş, K. (2020). Evaluating an Online Professional Learning Community as a Context for Professional Development in Classroom-based Research. TESL-EJ, 24(3), 1-17.
Sandelowski, M., Barroso, J. (2007). Using qualitative metasummary to synthesize qualitative and quantitative descriptive findings. Research in nursing & health, 30(1), 99-111.
Saubern, R., Urbach, D., Koehler, M., & Phillips, M. (2020). Describing increasing proficiency in teachers’ knowledge of the effective use of digital technology. Computers & Education, 147, 103784.
Shukla, T., Dosaya, D., Nirban, V. S., & Vavilala, M. P. (2020). Factors extraction of effective teaching-learning in online and conventional classrooms. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 10(6), 422-427.
Van Werven, I. M., Coelen, R. J., Jansen, E. P., & Hofman, W. H. A. (2021). Global teaching competencies in primary education. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2020.1869520
Verkuyl, M., Lapum, J. L., Hughes, M., McCulloch, T., Liu, L., Mastrilli, P., ... & Betts, L. (2018). Virtual gaming simulation: Exploring self-debriefing, virtual debriefing, and in-person debriefing. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 20, 7-14.. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2018.04.006. 
Vieira, F. (2020). Pedagogy of experience in teacher education for learner and teacher autonomy. Profile Issues in TeachersProfessional Development, 22(1), 143-158.
Vinagre, M. (2017). Developing teachers' telecollaborative competences in online experiential learning. System, 6(4), 34-45.
Voinea, M. (2019). Rethinking teacher training according to 21st century competences. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 4(3), 20-26.
Walker, R. J. (2008). Twelve characteristics of an effective teacher: A longitudenal, qualitative, quasi-research study of in-service and pre-service teachers' opinions. Educational Horizons, 87(1), 61-68.
Worth, J., & Van den Brande, J. (2020). Teacher Autonomy: How Does It Relate to Job Satisfaction and Retention? National Foundation for Educational Research.
Yu, S., Jiang, L., & Zhou, N. (2020). Investigating what feedback practices contribute to students’ writing motivation and engagement in Chinese EFL context: A large scale study. Assessing Writing, 44(10), 101- 125.
Yue, X. (2019). Exploring effective methods of teacher professional development in university for 21st century education. International Journal of Innovation Education and Research, 7(5), 248-257.
Yurtseven Avci, Z., O'Dwyer, L. M., & Lawson, J. (2020). Designing effective professional development for technology integration in schools. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 36(2), 160-177.
Zare, M. (2017). The social presence theory in distance education; the role of social presence in web-based educational environment. Future of Medical Education Journal, 7(4), 53-54.