چالش‌‏های مدیران مدارس ابتدایی شهر اهواز در رهبری مدرسۀ مجازی: مطالعۀ پدیدارشناختی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشکدۀ علوم تربیتی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد برنامه‌ریزی درسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

10.22034/jei.2021.271604.1804

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش بررسی و تبیین چالش‏های مدیران مدارس دورۀ ابتدایی شهر اهواز در رهبری مدارس در دوران آموزش مجازی است. در این تحقیق از روشِ کیفی، با رویکرد پدیدارشناسی توصیفی هوسرل، استفاده شده است. قلمرو پژوهش شامل کلیۀ مدیران مدارس ابتدایی شهر اهواز است. بدین منظور، 8 نفر از مدیران دورۀ ابتدایی به شیوه‌ای هدفمند، از نوع موارد مطلوب، به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند و با آن‌ها مصاحبۀ نیمه‌سازمان‌یافته صورت گرفت. داده‏های پژوهش با استفاده از چرخۀ تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل کرسول شامل سازماندهی داده‏ها، خواندن و یادداشت‌کردن، توصیف، طبقه‏بندی و رمزگذاری، تفسیر روایی و پایایی داده‏ها و نمایش و تجسم داده‏ها استخراج و تحلیل شدند. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، مدیران مدارس چالش‏های مدرسۀ مجازی را به ترتیب در محورهایی چون منابع مالی، زمان، همکاری والدین/ خانواده، توسعۀ حرفه‏ای، پاسخ‌گویی به مسئولیت‏ها و معلمان/ کارکنان مدرسه شناسایی کردند. علاوه‌براین، مدیران چالش‏های دیگر مدارس مجازی را در قالب دو محور «برنامۀ شاد» و مسائل مربوط به خانواده‏ها عنوان کردند. مهم‏ترین چالش‏های برنامۀ شاد شامل مواردی چون تعریف‌نکردن سهم کارکنان مدرسه به‌جز معلمان، پایین‌بودن سرعت شبکۀ اینترنت، مشکل احراز هویت دانش‏آموزان و خروج آنان از برنامۀ شاد، نبود قابلیت مشاهدۀ گیرندگان پیام برای کاربران و پایین‌بودن کیفیت فایل‏های ارسالی در این برنامه بودند. به‌علاوه، مدیران مدارس چالش‏های مربوط به خانواده‏ها را نیز در دو مضمون بی‏بضاعتی و تمکن‌ مالی نداشتن خانواده‏ها و بیکاری، طلاق، اعتیاد و بزهکاری والدین عنوان کردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Challenges of primary school principals of Ahvāz in leading a virtual school: A phenomenological study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Beyramipour 1
  • Sheydā Echresh 2
1 (PhD), Shahid Chamrān University of Ahvāz, Ahvāz, Iran
2 , MA Student in Curriculum Planning at Shahid Chamrān University of Ahvāz, Ahvāz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate and explain the challenges of primary school principals of Ahvāz in leading schools during the virtual education. To achieve this goal, a qualitative research method was used with Husserl's descriptive phenomenological approach. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight primary school principals, who were purposefully selected. Data were extracted and analyzed using Creswell’s analysis cycle, including data organization, reading and writing, description, classification and coding, interpretation of  the data validity and reliability, and displaying and visualization of the data. The results showed that the school principals identified the challenges of the virtual school in the areas of financial resources, time, parent/family cooperation, professional development, responsiveness to the responsibility and teachers/school staff, respectively. In addition to these challenges, which were based on the theoretical framework of the study by Richardson et al (2015), principals described the other challenges of the virtual school as “shād application” and "family issues". The most important challenges of shād application are themes such as not defining the role of school staff except teachers, low internet speed, problem of students’ authenticating and leaving the shād application, inability of users to see the message recipients, and the low quality of the files sent by users in this application were detected. In addition, the principals described the challenges of families in terms of the two themes: "poverty and financial inability of families" and "unemployment, divorce, addiction and parental delinquency."

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Virtual Education
  • Primary School Principals
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Lived experiences
  • phenomenological study
‏‫پوررجب، معصومه؛ پناهی درچه، اکبر؛ و افلاکی، امیر ارسلان. (۱۳۹۷). نقش مشارکت والدین در دستیابی به اهداف آموزشی. مجلۀ پیشرفت‌های نوین در روانشناسی، علوم تربیتی و آموزش‌و پرورش، 1(7)، 32-39.
‏‫سند تحول بنیادین آموزش‌وپرورش. (۱۳۹۰).
‏‫نعمت‌زاده آق براز، سمیه. (۱۳۹۳). بررسی مسائل اخلاقی در آموزش مجازی (پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد). دانشگاه الهیات و معارف اسلامی.
‏‫همت‌یار، زهرا؛ عبدالهی، بیژن؛ نوه ابراهیم، عبدالرحیم؛ و زین آبادی، حسن رضا. (۱۳۹۸). شناسایی ابعاد و مؤلفه‌های رفتاری رهبران آموزشی بینشمند در مدارس ابتدایی؛ پژوهشی کیفی و پدیدارشناسانه. مدیریت مدرسه، 7(3)، 143-160.
Ali Abadi, Kh; MoradiDoliskani, M; Moradi, R; & MohammadiGaledar. (2015). Perceptual Characteristics of Students in e-Content of the Curriculum Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 8(3), 179-185. Retrieved from http://edcbmj.ir/article-1-823-en.html
Alotebi, H.; Alharbi, O.; & Masmali, A. (2018). Effective Leadership in Virtual Learning Environments. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 8(2), 156-160. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2018.8.2.1026
Bathon, J; & Baker, B. D. (2013). School finance 2.0: Flexible financing for a virtual world. National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from https://nepc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/lb-pb-onlineedfinancing-legis_0.pdf
Beck, D; LaFrance, J; & Richardson, J. W. (2014). Voices of virtual school leaders: Challenges and advice. Presented at the Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association.
Carreño, I.D.V.G. (2014). Emergent leadership: E-leadership implications for virtual education. Revista de Estudios Para El Desarrollo Social de La Comunicación, 10, 308–324.
Cowan, L. D. (2014). E-Leadership: Leading in a virtual environment- Guiding principles for nurse leaders. Nursing Economics, 32(6), 312–322.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design (Third Edition). SAGE Publications.
Edie J. M. (1987). Edmund Husserl's phenemenology: A critical commentary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Gustafson, D. C. (2019, March). iPRINCIPAL: A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY ON THE CHALLENGES AND LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF VIRTUAL SCHOOL PRINCIPALS. LaFetra College of Education Organizational Leadership Department.
Hopman, J; Allegranzi, B; & Mehtar, S. (2020). Managing COVID-19 in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. JAMA, 323(16), 1549. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4169
International Society for Technology in Education. (2018). The ISTE standards for education leaders. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/standards/for-educationleaders
Johnson, H. (2015). Will Technology Kill Universities? Retrieved from https://time.com/3747816/education-chalkboard-chatroom/
Klein, P; & Westcott, M. (1994). The Changing Character of Phenomelogical Psychology. Canadian Psychology, 35(2), 133-157.
Lang, I. (2004). Review: Janice M. Morse & Lyn Richards (2002). Readme First for a User’s Guide to Qualitative Methods. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 5(1). Retrieved from https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/632
Mackey, J.; O’Reilly, N.; Jansen, C.; & Fletcher, J. (2018). Leading change to co-teaching in primary schools: a “Down Under” experience. Educational Review, 70(4), 465-485. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2017.1345859
McLeod, S; & Richardson, J. W. (2011). The Dearth of Technology Leadership Coverage. Journal of School Leadership, 21(2), 216-240. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/51371/
Miller, T; & Ribble, M. (2010). Moving Beyond Bricks and Mortar: Changing the Conversation on Online Education. Educational Considerations, 37(2). https://doi.org/10.4148/0146-9282.1149
Moluayonge, G. E. (2020). The Use of Modern Educational Technologies in Remote Learning in Higher Education during a Pandemic: The Case of COVID-19 in Cameroon. Journal of Learning for Development, 7(3), 479-484. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?q=challenges virtual education higher education covid 19&pr=on&ft=on&pg=3&id=EJ1280645
Moustakas, Clark E. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage..
Oliver, K; Kellogg, S; Townsend, L; & Brady, K. (2010). Needs of elementary and middle school teachers developing online courses for a virtual school. Distance Education, 31(1), 55-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587911003725022
Ottestad, G. (2013). School Leadership for ICT and Teachers’ Use of Digital Tools. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 2013, 107-125. https://doi.org/10.18261/ISSN1891-943X-2013-01-02-07
Patil, N G; & Yan, Y Chan Ho. (2003). SARS and its effect on medical education in Hong Kong. Medical Education, 37(12), 1127-1128. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.2003.01723.x
Phelps, K. (2012). Leadership Online: Expanding the Horizon. New Directions for Student Services, 2012(140), 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1002/ss.20032
Priest, H. (2002). An approach to the phenomenological analysis of data. Nurse Researcher, 10(2), 50-63.
Quilici, S. B.; & Joki, R. (2011). Investigating Roles of Online School Principals. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(2), 141-160. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2011.10782583
Rainford, J. (2021). Moving widening participation outreach online: challenge or opportunity? Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, 25(1), 2-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603108.2020.1785968
Rice, M; Lowenthal, P. R.; & Woodley, X. (2020). Distance education across critical theoretical landscapes: touchstones for quality research and teaching. Distance Education, 41(3), 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2020.1790091
Richardson, J. W.; LaFrance, J; & Beck, D. (2015). Challenges of Virtual School Leadership. American Journal of Distance Education, 29(1), 18-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2015.992647
Salsberry, A. (2010). K-12 Virtual Schools, Accreditation, and Leadership: What Are the Issues? Educational Considerations, 37(2). https://doi.org/10.4148/0146-9282.1151
Santos, G. E. de los; & Rosser, W. (2021). COVID-19 Shines a Spotlight on the Digital Divide. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 53(1), 22-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2021.1850117
Scott May, D. (2018). MEETING THE CHALLENGES OF MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES IN HIGHER EDUCATION. Pepperdine University.
Swars Auslander, S; Meyers, B; Shafer, N; Kavanagh, K; & Haardörfer, R. (2018). Becoming Critical Friends: Developmental Portraits of Three Professional Learning Communities, 11, 23-40.
Zu, Z. Y; Jiang, Meng D; Xu, P; Chen, W; Ni, Q; Lu, G. M; & Zhang, L. J. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perspective from China. Radiology, 296(2), E15-E25. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200490
 
  • تاریخ دریافت: 14 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 17 مرداد 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 02 شهریور 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 فروردین 1401