سن مناسب شروع آموزش زبان خارجی با تأکید بر زبان انگلیسی با توجه به عوامل فرهنگی: سنتزپژوهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه پژوهشی آموزش علوم‌انسانی، پژوهشگاه مطالعات آموزش‌وپرورش، سازمان پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم‌انسانی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

10.22034/jei.2022.304776.2104

چکیده

سن مناسب شروع آموزش زبان خارجی یکی از مباحث چالش‌برانگیز در آموزش زبان خارجی است، به‌خصوص هنگامی‌ که جایگاه فرهنگ در آموزش زبان خارجی موردبحث قرار می‌گیرد. هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی محدودۀ سنی مناسب آموزش زبان خارجی با تأکید بر زبان انگلیسی و با توجه به عوامل فرهنگی است. در این پژوهش از روش سنتزپژوهش‌های انجام‌شدۀ مرتبط استفاده‌ شد. در مرحلۀ اول سنتزپژوهی، با تعیین محدودۀ زمانی پژوهش، از سال ۱۹۶۱ تا ۲۰۲۰، و جست‌وجوی الکترونیکی تعداد 81 منبع به‌عنوان جامعۀ پژوهش شناسایی شد. در ادامه با لحاظ‌کردن روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند طی دو مرحله «غربالگری» ۱۹ پژوهش برای مرحلۀ بعد انتخاب شد. در مرحلۀ دوم، پژوهش‌های انتخاب‌شده با استفاده از جداول تشریح فیزیولوژیک تجزیه‌وتحلیل و واکاوی شدند. نتایج حاصل از واکاوی وارد مرحلۀ سنتز شد که دارای دو زیرمرحلۀ سنتز تجمیعی و ترکیبی است. در مرحلۀ سنتز، داده‌ها با هدف کدبندی تلفیق شدند که حاصل آن کدهای باز، محوری و گزینشی بود. کدهای گزینشی توانش بین‌فرهنگی، آگاهی فرهنگی ـ انتقادی، یادگیری زودهنگام فرهنگ زبان دوم و زمان موردنیاز برای شکل‌گیری فرهنگ زبان اول و دوم را شامل می‌شد. یافته‌ها حاکی‌از آن است که بیشتر پژوهشگران به اشتراک‌نظر در خصوص سن مناسب شروع آموزش زبان خارجی با توجه به عوامل فرهنگی در محدودۀ سنی زیر 12سالگی و با تأکید بر محدودۀ سنی کودکان کم‌سن‌وسال (۳-۵) دست یافته‌اند. نتایج پژوهش حاضر می‌تواند مورداستفادۀ سیاست‌گذاران آموزش زبان خارجی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Appropriate age to start teaching a foreign language (with an emphasis on English language) considering cultural factors: A research synthesis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vidā Rahiminezhād 1
  • Mohammadrezā Anāni Sarāb 2
1 (PhD), Research Institute for Education, Organization for Educational Research and Planning (OERP)
2 (PhD), Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The optimal age to start teaching a foreign language is one of the most challenging topics in foreign language education, especially when the role of culture in such education is discussed. The aim of this research was to identify the optimal age range for foreign language education (focusing on English) and considering the cultural factors. The method adopted in this study was synthesis of the related studies. In the first stage of research synthesis, through electronic search of the databases over a time period starting from 1961 to 2020, 81 sources were identified as the research population. Subsequently, through two round of purposeful sampling 19 studies were selected for the next stage. In the second stage, the selected researches were analyzed using the physiological analysis tables. The results of the analysis were entered into the synthesis stage, which has two sub-stages of aggregate and combined synthesis. In the synthesis stage, the data were integrated with the purpose of coding, which resulted in open, axial and selective codes. The selective codes included the intercultural competence, cultural-critical awareness, early learning of second language culture, and the time required for the formation of the first and second language culture. The findings indicated that the majority of researchers whose studies were reviewed conceded that the optimal age range to start teaching a foreign language considering cultural factors is the age range below 12 years preferably young children of 3 to 5 years old. The results of the present study could be used by foreign language education policy makers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foreign Language Education
  • Age
  • Intercultural Competence
  • Communicative Approach
  • Research Synthesis
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