رابطۀ مدت زمان انجام تکلیف و پیشرفت ریاضی: کاربرد مدل یابی چندسطحی برای تحلیل داده های تیمز 2011

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار روان شناسی دانشکدة روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد روش‌های تحقیق و ارزشیابی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات

3 استادیار روانشناسی تربیتی دانشکدة روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

باور عمومی این است که تکلیف شب بر یادگیری و عملکرد تحصیلی اثرگذار است، ولی در تحقیقات موجود این رابطه به طور کامل مورد تأیید قرار نگرفته است. هدف مطالعۀ حاضر تعیین رابطۀ مدت زمان انجام تکلیف شب با پیشرفت ریاضی با توجه به داده های تیمز 2011 و در دو سطح دانش آموز و مدرسه است. این رابطه در میان 6029 دانش آموز پایة هشتم شرکت کنده در آزمون تیمز (2816 دختر و 3213 پسر) که پرسش نامة استاندارد آن را تکمیل کرده بودند بررسی شد. نتایج تحلیل چندسطحی نشان دهنده رابطه مثبت بین مدت زمان انجام تکلیف در سطح دانش آموز (در سطح 0/001) و در سطح مدرسه (در سطح 0/01) با پیشرفت ریاضی بوده است. یافته ها حاکی از میزان قوی تر رابطة مدت زمان انجام تکلیف و عملکرد تحصیلی ریاضی در سطح دانش آموز در مقایسه با سطح مدرسه بوده است. به طوری که در مدل کامل 47% و 53% از واریانس عملکرد ریاضی به ترتیب بر اساس زمان انجام تکلیف در سطح مدرسه و دانش آموز تبیین شده است. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که مدل دوسطحی، برخلاف مدل معمولی و یک سطحی، دانش بیشتری در ارتباط با رابطة بین متغیرها ارائه می دهد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship between homework time and achievement: An application of multilevel analysis for TIMSS 2011 data

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elāhe Hejāzi 1
  • Alirezā Kiāmanesh 2
  • Zahrā Naghsh 3
1 (PhD), University of Tehran
2 (PhD), Islāmic Āzād University (Science and Research Branch)
3 (PhD), University of Tehran (corresponding Author)
چکیده [English]

Homework is generally believed to be an important supplement to in-school learning, but research have not yet fully clarified the relationship between homework and achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between homework time and mathematics achievement based on TMSS 2011 data at two levels analysis: student and school. This relationship was analyzed among 6029 8Th grade students (2816 girls and 3213 boys) who participated at TIMSS 2011and completed the TIMSS questionnaire. Multilevel analyses found a positive association between homework time at the student level (p<0.001) and school-average homework time at the school level (p<0.01) with mathematics achievement, but the size of the association at the student level was more than school level. So, in the full model, 47% and 53%, of the variance in mathematics performance has been explained based on the homework time at the school and student levels, respectively. The results highlighted the need to use multilevel analyses in homework research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Homework Time
  • Mathematics Achievement
  • Multilevel Modeling

 Chen, C., & Stevenson, H. W. (1989). Homework: A cross-cultural examination. Child Development, 60(3), 551–561.

 Cooper, H. (1989). Homework. White Plains, NY: Longman.

 Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., Nye, B., & Greathouse, S. (1998).Relationships among attitudes about homework, amount of homework assigned and completed, and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 70–83.

 Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., &Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62.

 Cooper, H. & Valentine, J. C. (2001).Using research to answer practical questions about homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 143–153.

 De Jong, R., Westerhof, K. J., & Creemers, B. P. M. (2000). Homework and student math achievement in junior high schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 6, 130-157.

 Eccles, J. S. (2005). Subjective task values and the Eccles et al. model of achievement related choices. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 105–121). New York: Guilford.

 Hallam, S. (2004). Homework: The evidence. London: University of London, Institute of Education.

 Huntsinger, C. S., Joes, P. E., Larson, S. L., Krieg, D. B. & Shaligram, C. (2000).Mathematics, vocabulary, and reading development in Chinese American and European American over primary school years. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 745–760.

 Keith, T. Z., & Cool, V. A. (1992).Testing models of school learning: Effects of quality of instruction, motivation, academic coursework, and homework on academic achievement. School Psychology Quarterly, 7, 207–226.

 Keith, T. Z., Keith, P. B., Troutman, G. C., Bickley, P. G.,Trivette, P. S., & Singh, K. (1993). Does parental involvement affect eighth-grade student achievement? School Psychology Review, 22, 474–496.

 Kreft, I., & de Leeuw, J. (1998).Introducing multilevel modeling. London: Sage Publications.

 Li, G. (2005). Family as educator: A Chinese-Canadian experience of acquiring second language literacy. Canadian Children, 30(2), 9–16.

 Liem, A.D., Lau, S., Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies,task disengagement, peer relationship and achievement outcome. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33,486-512.

 Mau, W. (1997). Parental influences on the high school students’ academic achievement: Comparison of Asian immigrants, Asian Americans, and white Americans. Psychology in the Schools, 34, 267–277.

 Mikk, J. (2006). Students’ homework and TIMSS 2003mathematics results. Paper presented at the International Conference, “Teaching Mathematics: Retrospective and Perspectives,” Tartu, Estonia

 Raudenbush, S. W. &Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 Rodriguez, M. C. (2004). The role of classroom assessment in student performance on TIMSS. Applied Measurement in Education, 17(1), 1–24.

 Sharp, C., Keys, W., & Benefield, P. (2001). Homework: A review of recent research. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research. Retrieved on May 26

 Trautwein, U. (2007). The homework-achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort. Learning and Instruction, 17, 372-388.

 Trautwein, U. & Köller, O. (2003a). The relationship between homework and achievement - still much of a mystery. Educational Psychology Review, 15, 115-145.

 Trautwein, U., Köller, O., Schmitz, B. & Baumert, J. (2002). Do homework assignments enhance achievement? A multilevel analysis in 7th-grade mathematics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 26-50.

 Trautwein, U. & Lüdtke, O. (2007). Students' self-reported effort and time on homework in six school subjects: Between-students differences and within-student variation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 432-444.

 Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Kastens, C. &Köller, O. (2006). Effort on homework in grades 5- 9: Development, motivational antecedents, and the association with effort on classwork. Child Development, 77, 1094-1111.

 Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Schnyder, I. & Niggli, A. (2006). Predicting homework effort: Support for a domain-specific, multilevel homework model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 438-456.

 Van den Noortgate, W., Opdenakker, M.-C., & Onghena, P. (2005). The Effects of Ignoring a Level in Multilevel Analysis. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 16(3), 281–303.