Using SHĀD application and television teaching during Covid-19 pandemic outbreaks: shortcomings and challenges

Document Type : Original Article


(PhD), Organization for Educational Research and Planning, Research Institute for Education


With the outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic, the Ministry of education obliged teachers and students to use TV (Television) teaching and SHĀD application to continue formal education. In order to evaluate the SHĀD application and TV teaching programs, this study was designed and conducted. Questionnaires were developed to collect data on the experiences of students and teachers and they were shared in SHĀD application. A total of 85,372 primary school students and 12,778 primary school teachers participated in this study. Findings showed that smart cellphones were the most accessible tool among both students and teachers. 72.4% of students and 90% of teachers reported slow speed of SHĀD application for downloading and uploading files. 78 % of primary school students considered the time of TV programs as little. 88.6 % of them mentioned that their teachers taught lessons better than teachers in the TV teaching programs and 82.9 % of them did not have a close relationship with a TV teacher. Near 40 percent of students commented that they are satisfied with TV teaching programs and TV teacher. Overall, teachers’ difficulties with SHĀD application could be classified into four categories including 1) monitoring and controlling the students' learning, 2) technical problems of SHĀD application, 3) lack of teachers' skill and finally 4) lack of access to internet. Around 35.2 % of the teachers believed that TV teaching programs were appropriate to compensate for the lack of face to face education in the classrooms. These findings could be used for improving these programs as well as the integration of digital technologies in the teaching and learning processes in Post-Covid-19 education at schools.


حسینی، زهرا، (1394). مقایسه تأثیر الگوهای آموزش مستقیم و ساختارگرایی برافزایش دانش تلفیق فناوری دانشجو معلمان. رویکردهای نوین آموزشی دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، 10(2)، 14-24.
زینی وندنژاد، فرشته. (1399). عوامل مؤثر و روابط بین آن ها در ارتقای استفاده از فناوری های دیجیتال در میان معلمان دورة دوم ابتدایی و دبیران ریاضی دورة اول متوسطه. مطالعات برنامة درسی، 15(57)، 65-106.
زینی وندنژاد، فرشته. (1398). بررسی میزان و چگونگی به کارگیری رسانه های دیداری- شنیداری (فیلم، کتاب گویا) و نرم افزارهای آموزشی در فرآیند یاددهی و یادگیری ریاضی توسط دانش آموزان و معلمان در دورة دوم ابتدایی و دورة اول متوسطه (شماره 43141). سازمان پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزشی.
Amhag, L., Hellström, L., & Stigmar, M. (2019). Teacher Educators' Use of Digital Tools and Needs for Digital Competence in Higher Education. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 35(4), 203-220. doi:10.1080/21532974.2019.1646169.
Arnold, I. J. (2016). Cheating at online formative tests: Does it pay off? The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 98-106.
Bates, T. W. (1982). Roles and characteristics of television and some implications for distance learning. Distance Education, 3(1), 28-50.
Blundell, C., Lee, K. T., & Nykvist, S. (2020). Moving beyond enhancing pedagogies with digital technologies: Frames of reference, habits of mind and transformative learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(2), 178-196.
Boitshwarelo, B., Reedy, A. K., & Billany, T. (2017). Envisioning the use of online tests in assessing twenty-first century learning: a literature review.Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1), 1-16.
Bouhnik, D., & Deshen, M. (2014). WhatsApp goes to school: Mobile instant messaging between teachers and students. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 13, 217-231.
Burrus, R. T., McGoldrick, K., & Schuhmann, P. W. (2007). Self-reports of student cheating: Does a definition of cheating matter? Journal of Economic Education, 38(1), 3-16.
Butler-Henderson, K., & Crawford, J. (2020). A systematic review of online examinations: A pedagogical innovation for scalable authentication and integrity. Computers & Education, 159(17), 1-12. 2020.104024
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research(4th Ed.). Pearson.
Dendir, S., & Maxwell, R. S. (2020). Cheating in online courses: Evidence from online proctoring. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 2, 100033.
European Commission. (2019). 2nd survey of schools: ICT in Education. Norway Country Report. Publications Office of the European Union.
Flores, M. A. (2020). Preparing teachers to teach in complex settings: opportunities for professional learning and development.‏European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(3), 297-300.
Garbe, A., Ogurlu, U., Logan, N., & Cook, P. (2020). Parents’ Experiences with Remote Education during COVID-19 School Closures. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 4(3), 45-65.
Hobbs, V., Pellant, D., & Chastain, M. (1993). The school administrator’s primer on distance learning: Two-way interactive television (I-TV) via fiber optics(ED 364188). ERIC.
Iqbal, M. Z., Alradhi, H. I., Alhumaidi, A. A., Alshaikh, K. H., AlObaid, A. M., Alhashim, M. T., & AlSheikh, M. H. (2020). Telegram as a Tool to Supplement Online Medical Education During COVID-19 Crisis. Acta Informatica Medica, 28(2), 94-97.
Jere, N. R., Jona, W., & Lukose, J. M. (2019, May). Effectiveness of Using WhatsApp for Grade 12 Learners in Teaching Mathematics in South Africa. In 2019 IST-Africa Week Conference (IST-Africa) (pp. 1-12). IEEE.
Kim, S. W. (2015). Effectiveness of a satellite educational television program for Ethiopian secondary education. Distance Education, 36(3), 419-436.
König, J., Jäger-Biela, D. J., & Glutsch, N. (2020). Adapting to online teaching during COVID-19 school closure: Teacher education and teacher competence effects among early career teachers in Germany. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 608-622.
Malik, M. S., Aslam, H. D., Hameed, Y. M. Y., Furqan, M. M., & Gujjar, A. A. (2011). A study to analyze the role of television in nonformal education of peasants in Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research, 3, 377-382. http://www.ijar.
Naidoo, J., & Kopung, K. J. (2016). Exploring the Use of WhatsApp in Mathematics Learning: A Case Study.Journal of Communication, 7(2), 266-273.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics.
Parczewska, T. (2020). Difficult situations and ways of coping with them in the experiences of parents homeschooling their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Education 3-13,  49(7), 889-900.
Petry, J., & Ball, A. (1980). ITV annual evaluation report: WKNO-TV, WLJT-TV, 1979-80. Memphis State University.
Saglik, A. P. D. M., & Ozturk, A. P. D. S. (2001). Television as an Educational Technology: Using Television at Open Education Faculty, Anadolu Universty. Turkish online journal of distance education, 2(1).‏
Sewell, J., Frith, K. H., & Colvin, M. M. (2010). Online assessment strategies: A primer. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 297-305. sewell_0310.pdf
Shorkey, C. T., & Uebel, M. (2014). History and development of instructional technology and media in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 50, 247-261. doi:10.1080/10437797.2014.885248
Simsek, I., Balaban, M. E., & Ergin, H. (2019). The Use of Expert Systems in Individualized Online Exams. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 18(2), 116-127.
So, S. (2016). Mobile instant messaging support for teaching and learning in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 31, 32-42. iheduc.2016.06.001.
Spencer, K. (1999). Educational technology - An unstoppable force: A selective review of research into the effectiveness of educational media. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 2, 23-34.
Suana, W., Distrik, I. W., Herlina, K., Maharta, N., & Putri, N. M. A. A. (2019). Supporting blended learning using mobile instant messaging application: Its effectiveness and limitations. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 1011-1024.
United Nations Children's Fund. (2020, August).COVID-19: Are Children Able to Continue Learning during School Closures? Retrieved September 4, 2020 from https://data.unicef.orunig/resources/remote-learning-reachability-factsheet/.
van der Spoel, I., Noroozi, O., Schuurink, E., & van Ginkel, S. (2020). Teachers’ online teaching expectations and experiences during the Covid19-pandemic in the Netherlands. European journal of teacher education, 43(4), 623-638.
The World Bank. (2020). How countries are using EdTech (including online learning, radio, television, texting) to support access to remote learning during the Covid-19 Pandemic.
Zhang, T. (2020). Learning from the emergency remote teaching-learning in China when primary and secondary schools were disrupted by COVID-19 pandemic. Research Square.‏