Designing the conceptual model of empirical science curriculum based on actor-network theory in the network learning environment of the first cycle secondary school

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Candidate in Curriculum Studies at Shahid Rajāee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

2 (PhD), Shahid Rajāee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

3 (PhD), Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


The purpose of this research was to design an empirical science curriculum model based on the actor-network theory in a network learning environment. In order to achieve this goal, a meta-synthesis and grounded theory approach has been used. The research population included the faculty members, familiar with the fields of curriculum studies, educational technology and all articles and theses, related to the subject in the valid databases in the time interval between 2005 up to 2020. The research sample in the qualitative section of the research was selected through theoretical (non-probability) and purposive sampling using the snowball method. To analyze the data, the open, axial and selective coding methods were used. In order to measure reliability and quality control, Kappa method was used. Kappa coefficient, was calculated by SPSS (0. 94), which was at the level of excellent agreement. Findings showed that the principles governing the actor-network curriculum include: the generalized symmetry, heterogeneity and multiplicity, free analysis, correlation, networking, and process-orientedness. The actor-network theory-based curriculum is sensitive to context, based on differences, inter-subjective and distributed multi-vein. The objectives of this multi-faceted curriculum is interdisciplinary, climatic, and plural. Its content is dynamic, indeterminate and generalizable. Its strategy is teaching and learning, based on deconstruction, cultivation of reproduction skill, multi-network, based on the negotiation and creation of knowledge. The teacher's role in such a curriculum is like an anthropologist, intellectual and reformer. The learning environment should be collaborative and it should provide a space for searching the archived knowledge. Also, the learning environment should be multi-sensory, having divergent evaluation, sensitive to the individual differences, problem-oriented and responsive-oriented.


سجادی، سید مهدی و ایمان‌زاده، علی. (1388). بررسی و تبیین فضای ریزوماتیک و دلالت‌های آن در برنامۀ درسی، تهران. نشریۀ مطالعات برنامۀ درسی، 3(12) 48 ـ70. 
شکی، فاطمه و اصفهانی نیا، اکرم. بای، ناصر. (1397). اثر استفاده از شبکه‌های اجتماعی بر تسهیم دانش و یادگیری کارکنان ادارات ورزش و جوانان استان گلستان. مطالعات مدیریت ورزشی، 10(52)، 248ـ 229. 
شمشیرگران، سید فاطمه.، افکاری، فرشته و احمدی، غلامعلی. (1398). طراحی برنامۀ درسی مجازی در درس علوم اول متوسطه (پایۀ نهم). فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در علوم تربیتی، 10(2)، 155ـ173.
علی‌آبادی، خدیجه، رجبیان ده‌زیره، مریم و درتاج، فریبا. (1396). بررسی رابطۀ بین میزان استفاده از شبکه‌های اجتماعی مجازی و راهبرد‌های یادگیری خودتنظیمی در دانش‌آموزان. دو‌ماهنامۀ علمی - پژوهشی راهبرهای آموزش در علوم پزشکی، 10(5)، 345 ـ357.
فراستخواه، مقصود. (1390، 29 اردیبهشت). انگاره‌ای از برنامۀ درسی آینده با تأکید بر رهیافت «نظریۀ کنشگر ـ شبکه» [مقالۀ ارائه‌شده]. همایش تحول بنیادین در نظام برنامۀ درسی ایران، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.
Akınoğlu, O. (2013). Effects of concept maps on students critical thinking skills in science education. The Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 14(3A), 1424-1431. 
Carroll, M. (2018). Understanding curriculum: An Actor Network Theory approach. Studies-in Self- Access Learning Journal, 9(3), 247-261. 
Çırak, S. (2016). Bir harmanlanmış öğrenme deneyimi. İlköğretim Online, 16(2), 860-886. 
Elam, M. Solli, A. & Mäkitalo, Å. (2019). Socioscientific issues via controversy mapping: Bringing actor-network theory into the science classroom with digital technology. Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education, 40(1), 61-77. DOI:10. 1080/ 01596306. 2018. 1549704. 
Fenwick, T. J. (2010). (un) Doing standards in education with actor‐network theory. Journal of Education Policy, 25(2), 117-133. DOI: 10. 1080/02680930903314277. 
Fountain, R. M. (2010). Socio-scientific issues via actor network theory. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(3), 339-358. DOI:10. 1080/002202799183160. 
Jones, C. M., Clavier, C., & Potvin, L. (2017). Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health. Social Science & Medicine, 177, 69-77. 
Jovanovic, J., Chiong, R., & Weise, T. (2012). Social networking, teaching, and learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 7(1), 39-43. 
Karahan, E., & Roehrig, G. (2015). Constructing media artifacts in a social constructivist environment to enhance students’ environmental awareness and activism. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24(1), 103-118. 
Katz, A., & Kim, J. H. Y. (2016). Teaching strategies and tactics in K-12 blended education: The flipped classroom model. In Blended Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 222-251). IGI Global. 
Lau, D. C. M. (2001). Analysing the curriculum development process: three models. Pedagogy, culture and society, 9(1), 29-44. DOI: 10. 1080/14681360100200107
Matthews, A. (2019). Design as a discipline for Postdigital learning and teaching: Bricolage and actor-network theory. Postdigital Science and Education, 1(2), 413-426. https://doi. org/ 10. 1007/s42438-019-00036-z. 
Mitchell, B. (2019). Student-Led Improvement Science Projects: a praxiographic, actor-network theory study. Studies in Continuing Education, 42(1), 133-146. DOI: 10. 1080/0158037X. 2019. 1577234
Richard, V., & Bader, B. (2009). Re‐presenting the social construction of science in light of the propositions of Bruno Latour: For a renewal of the school conception of science in secondary schools. Science Education, 94(4), 743-759. https://doi. org/10. 1002/sce. 20376. 
Rivera, G. (2013). The use of Actor-Network Theory and a Practice-Based Approach to understand online community participation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Sheffield). https://etheses. whiterose. ac. uk/4000/1/Final_final_final. pdf
Robelia, B. A., Greenhow, C., & Burton, L. (2011). Environmental learning in online social networks: Adopting environmentally responsible behaviors. Environmental education research, 17(4), 553-575. 
Rowan, L., & Bigum, C. (2013). Actor network theory and the study of online learning. In Quality Education a distance (pp. 179-188). Springer, Boston, MA. Quality Education a Distance (pp. 179-188). DOI: 10. 1007/978-0-387-35700-3_20. 
Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2007). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. springer publishing company. 
Shin, D. H. (2015). Application of actor-network theory to network neutrality in Korea: Socio-ecological understanding of network dynamics. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 436-451. doi: http://dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. tele. 2015. 10. 002. 
Tatnall, A. (2019, April). Researching Computers and Education Through Actor-Network Theory. In International Conference on Sustainable ICT, Education, and Learning (pp. 78-88). Springer, Cham. 
Wilson, K. L., & Boldeman, S. U. (2012). Exploring ICT integration as a tool to engage young people at a flexible learning centre. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21(6), 661-668.