The Relationship between homework time and achievement: An application of multilevel analysis for TIMSS 2011 data


1 (PhD), University of Tehran

2 (PhD), Islāmic Āzād University (Science and Research Branch)

3 (PhD), University of Tehran (corresponding Author)


Homework is generally believed to be an important supplement to in-school learning, but research have not yet fully clarified the relationship between homework and achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between homework time and mathematics achievement based on TMSS 2011 data at two levels analysis: student and school. This relationship was analyzed among 6029 8Th grade students (2816 girls and 3213 boys) who participated at TIMSS 2011and completed the TIMSS questionnaire. Multilevel analyses found a positive association between homework time at the student level (p<0.001) and school-average homework time at the school level (p<0.01) with mathematics achievement, but the size of the association at the student level was more than school level. So, in the full model, 47% and 53%, of the variance in mathematics performance has been explained based on the homework time at the school and student levels, respectively. The results highlighted the need to use multilevel analyses in homework research.


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