عنوان مقاله [English]
Models are valuable tools for learning science, however, their utility would be restricted if students do not consider the nature of models, their purpose, and their implementation in the learning process. The focus of this research was to find out about the type of model and meta-modeling knowledge of second cycle high school students on physics, chemistry, and biology courses. The research sample consisted of 530 second cycle high school students who were selected through convenience sampling method to answer the modeling knowledge questionnaire. Partial credit question-answer model was used to analyze the data. Findings showed that students think primarily about objective and functional models, and abstract models (diagram or equation) are of secondary importance. Modeling knowledge and awareness of the function and objectives of models are not independent from the content area, and the type and application of models depend on the content and the course, in such a way that students use modeling in biology more to describe phenomena and in physics and chemistry for prediction and reasoning. It is suggested that in the science curriculum more attention should be paid to the model and modeling knowledge in the course's content, and the students' metacognitive skills should be developed to identify, apply, revise, and evaluate models. Science teachers should also be encouraged to consciously use modeling in the teaching process.